Title of Paper
Joseph J. Green
Northern Arizona University
Explain the key features of corrections in 20th century America in an essay. In your discussion of the evolving corrections system, include details about prison programs, prison architecture, female offenders, racial disparities, and key developments during the early, mid, and late century. At the end of your essay, make a prediction about how corrections will change in America through the 21st century.
1 Early 21st centry
Reformatory era ends in the early 20th centry 1910
Focus on punishment and future through educational and vocational programs
Industrial era begins 1910
Focus on inmates to produce products that helps support the prision
2 Mid 21st century
Industrial era ends in 1935 due to laws
transition period through 1960
Lack of programs
Hands off doctrine
1960 Rehabilatative era begins
Focus on improvement of prison staff
Focus on criminals being “sick” and we just need to find a cure
Martinson realized that no one treatement reduced rates of prisoners returning to the system after being released
Funding is lost.
3 Late 19th century to current
Rehabilatative era ends in 1980 with the start of the retributive era
Return to the theory that crimes are a choice, not a sickness
Focus on being tougher on crime
Seems to be the start of a patern. We started with focusing on punishment, and ended with focusing on punishment. Soon, the focus, if the patter repeats, will return to focusing on helping criminals.
Prisons will become better for inmates
People believe that harsh conditions makes for worse people
Overcrowding will be a major interest
Reflects poorly on the United States to have such a huge percapita prisoner count
Drug crimes will be lessoned (they already have in many states)
Prison terms sentanced will remain high. People want prisoners to stay in prison. Still in the retributive era where we are tough on crime.
Compare and contrast the Pennsylvania and Auburn prison systems in terms of their architecture, orienting strategies, and advantages/disadvantages.
2 Orienting stategies
PA – direct towards self reflection
Soul saving quakers
NY – direct towards
Economy saving laborers