Title of Paper
Joseph J. Green
Northern Arizona University
Write a 1500- to 2000-word analysis comparing and contrasting how key concepts and theories of group dynamics are illustrated in the three films.
1 Brief overview of the films
Kennedy and Hubert Humphrey
Win the primary of the1960 Wisconsin primary
They both had staff to help them. Humpfrey took a more dicator-like stance
Kennedy took a more democratic stance.
Groups include, both side’s staff. The two pubic camps.
2 Judgement at Nuremberg
A couple years after the end of World War II. An American judge persides and judges the fate of judges who were compliant with Hitler.
Dr. Ernst Janning
Groups include, the entire tribunal, judges, audience, defendants, pantiff, defendants.
3 The Manchurian Candidate
A group of soldiers are caputred in Korea. They end up in the Manchu region where Russians brainwash them all, and turn one of them into a sleeper agent.
Groups include, communists uncovered in the dreams
Many two person groups (fill in later)
His mother and step father
His mother and step father’s oppnent and opponent’s daughter
2 Key concepts
Groups have their own nature
Groups end up in a middle ground, choping off extreme viewpoints
People can be replaced or added to groups with little effect.
Motivations and emotions
Bruce Tuckman’s theory of group development (NATURE_OF_GROUP)
Groups go through a series of five stages --- Who is this guy again?
Forming – figure out what they need to do, get together
Storming, everyone pushes their opinions and try to find status in the group
norming – norms are developed. Upper and lower extremes of individual opinion are cut off until the group finds a nice middle ground.
Performing – where real performance gains and accomplismenets of tasks happen
Adjourning – The groups have finished it’s tasks and wraps up the purpose of the grou and evenutally dissolves. (Smith, 2007)
Leave and go to another state
Find people to perside over the case. Get everyone together.
Get the basic oppinion from each side
Captin is formal
Judge requests informality
Judge doesn’t want servants.
Senator says he does, for sake of the servants
prosecution and defense do their roles. Judges do their roles. Sentences and context are executed, disstening opinion read.
3 Forming – Military group. Get’s captured. Forcefully formed.
Storming – The commy group pushes their opinions into these peoples heads
Norming – They set it up for it to be normal for everyone to like the main guy
Performing – Everyone says how much they loved the guy and how he deserved a medal of honor, AND that the guy did the horic acts of mowing down an entire chineese platoon
Adjourning – This wasn’t really done, other than the guy killing himself.
Kurt lewins field theory behaviour is a function of the person and the social environment Social environment that a person within a group finds himself in has a dramatic affect on a person’s behaviour(NATURE_OF_GROUP)
Group norms develop over time until individual members accept a general average of what the group thought.
Muzafer Sherif found with agroup of individuals in an expiriment where they tried to judge the distance a spec of light had moved, had widely varying opinions, but over time the group came to a common ground. Even spoken to individually after the fact, they people stuck with what the group thought. Even if the expiriment was explained to them, they continued to stick with the group thik.
Members of a group are replaceable. When new memebers are introduced, they may have different thoughts, but over time, come to agree with the group.
People have different opinions, but come to a middle ground after a while.
Group of people watching presidental candidate (Kennedy)
singing together. Before 5th minute
People are quiet during Kennedy speech 5:00
Shaking everyone’s hands on the way out.
Group of according playing 0700
applause begins applause 0800
Humpfry kissing hands and shaking babies
Humpfry talking about caring about agriculture, influences negative connotations to the other group (his opponents) on their level of dedication to agriculture. 21:00
Someone laughs, everyone joins in a bit and applauses.
Try to make people leaugh “They like to see me squirm” (about asking tough questions)
Humpfry talks to his people. Telling them to make sure they are doing things in a specific way. Humpfry is unquestionably the boss. 23:00
Everyone is subbordinate. Telling woman what to do.
Kennedy suggesting that the people figure things out themselves 26:00
Kennedy team seems to push towards people thinking on their own
Kennedy team has a catchy song – chanting about voting for him – using the song “High Hopes” by Frank Sinatra with some altered lyrics
Crowd seems to split appart for Kennedy 29:00
Kennedy is very “we” focused instead of “I” focused 34:00
Kennedy is catholic, and we’re catholic too, I think that has a lot to do with it 39:00
Other’s say, they’d prefer a god fearing man
Other’s say, religion should stay out of politics. 39
Both camps have confirmation bias. They both believe, without a doubt, that their candidate will win 40:00
Groups are large. Every member doesn’t know every other member.
Humpfry folks feel great in the early results
Kennedy folks clearly look nervous and defeated in the early results
City votes comes out and knocks Humpfry over. 2:1 Kennedy
The people all believed their group, despite their earlier confidence.
Rural and city folk prefer different sides. Kennedy for city, Humpfrey for rural, rual has little say in presidential matters
=======================Judgment At Nuremberg===================
Person complains of horn, other joins in.
Judge Haywood talks to Harrison. Harrison is a captin from West Point. Haywood tells him that he feels uncomfortable with all the formality. Requests a bit of informality. Harrison accepts a middle ground and calls him “Judge”
“and all this formality kinda gets me down a little” 0934
Judge says having three servents makes him feel like a fool. The Senator mentions that it helps them too, they’re able to eat, and the judge accepts. 10:00
People on trial answer not-guilty
The defense has made their statement. Proc and Def are of different oppinions. Proc says these people failed to administer true justice (as judges), Def said that they are not responsible for the laws in their country, only to uphold them. Judge Haywood doesn’t know what to think.
Nazism itself. People feel into each other.
Judges fall into doing their job, group think
Dr Wieck 42:00 – Swore to the “Servant Loyalty Oath of 1934” Because everyone did, it was mandatory. He also renouced his position as a judge to avoid wearing the swashtika. Yet, still took the oath. An oath that allowed Hitler to gain such power.
52:00 Servants. What could we do?
1:03 – Mr. Rudolph Petersen admited to being sterilized. A nurse who said she was against it prepared him. A Dr. who said he was against it, did it anyway.
1:13 Max mentioned how the American people don’t care anymore. With the war over (for two years), focus was shifted elsewhere quickly.
1:19 The colonel lumps all germans as guilty for the crime of just trying to get along in their lives. The crimes of the state and her orders of her people against the individuals.
1:25 – song of unity with one another
1:44 – The Jew, Mr. Feldenstein, was placed on trial for pollutioon of the aryian race. Method of prosecution was simple rilecution. According to Mrs. Wallner.
1:55ish. One of the men on trial refused to believe it possible that so many people were murdered. After someone tells him of the possibility, he starts to believe. Most did not speak.
Courts and jouries themselves are all about a social group dynamic.
Two people, the prosecutor and defense, are expected to maintain the extreem oppinions. The rest of the people try to come to the common ground of belief.
2:22 sacrificial lamb story. People were desperate, to find a devil to blame, was to free themselves.
2:30 – Earnst Janning. He admited knowing other people were horrible, he admitted that he knew better, he admited that he walked among them. As someone who dedicated his life to justice, his guilt was strong. Janning is noted to be a wonerful and intellegent man, he even saw what may come, or what was likley to come, yet he went along with it anyway, and turned a blind eye. Group think.
2:41 Defendants give their final statements. They were all strongly not guilty in the beginning, they all seem to accept responsibility, however, they believe that they are not guilty for following the laws of their country.
Even the persecution started to feel that it’s more than just sentencing people guilty.
2:51:25 Judge: “That under a national crisis, ordinary, even able and extraordinary men can delude themselves into the commission of crimes so vast and heinous that they beggar the imagination.” ~ Goes along with my own thing I came up with…
===============The Manchurian Candidate ==========================
Army group follows orders, get captured.
Major Bennett Marco reoccuring dream. All are brought together. Raymond Shaw is investigated. Major Marco is recommended to be put somewhere else for a while. Must be shell shock. 18:00
22:00, another member of the group starts dreaming of Raymond Shaw strangling the guy (GET HIS NAME) ; Raymond gives shaw his pistol; Shaw shoots who?
Shaw is ordered to kill his newspaper boss. The dr and the other guy make a decision to kill someone to test. The DR is against it at first, but submits to allowing it, first suggessting killing own personelle, then allowing for the boss guy.
1:11 Robert shaw talking about his pre-army fling. She may have saved his life, and they went on happily ever after until his mother ruined it.
Every grouping seems to be a pair, except for the commies in the dream
Commie folk do horrible things in the name of, what? I don’t even know. But at start of video
Shaw and Shaws mother dominant and subbordinate relationship.
Groups of american people
Groups of candidates and their staff
A group prosiding over a group who had prosided over others
Multiple one on one relationships
Shaw, shaw’s mother
Shw’s mother, Shaw’s step father
The major and shaw
Shaw and the colonel?
Major and the girl
Some judgement groups
The major and the medical board
The commies in the dream
Drilled to remember imaginary events (the platoon)
He strangled Ed Mavole
Shot Bobby Lembeck
Killed Mr. Gaines (his boss)
was just a test
Killed Senator Jordan
His mother is his American operator????? Yup.
Lack of friends may have helped him go crazy
Studies should be done at the group level? Or the individual?
Manchu candidate is a group and individual thing
Manchu – Communisim win over capitalism
Nuremberg – Prevail in Justice
Primary – Win the primary
Manchu – Desire to overcome capitalism; desire to talk about dreams and reach out
Nuremberg – For what else is justice for?
Primary – Get’s the crowed going and cheering on their candidate
Jennifer George’s theory of group affective tone
Groups display collective mood states
Group mood may not be noticed by members of the grouping
Manchurian – Happy at the brothel
Nuremberg – Everyone seemed to fall into a mood of feeling for the prosecuted
Primary – Respective candidate crowds grew into a frenzy of cheering. Kennedies even more with the Sinatra rip.
Social Exchange Theory
Individuals try to maximize rewards and minimize costs
In groups, individuals surrender exclusive control over their outcomes
Members influence outcomes and actions of all other members
Manchu – Mother accepts control over her son
Nuremberg – Judges accept guilty verdict, with one dissenting opinon
Primary – The not kennedy guy force control over the group. Kennedy side seems to encourage thinking
Unique results are obtained when a system is formed by creating dependency among formerly independent components. Groups are systems – collections of individual units that combine to form an integrated, complex whole.
Manchu – All members of the captured soldiers are combined to support the killing machine that is Shaw
Nuremberg – All members are combined to find a group judgement of the actions of others.
Primary – The many parts that combine to create a campaign.
align people’s self-conceptions with their conception of the groups to wich they belong.
Manchu – Major aligned himself with PTSD or Shell Shock people’s
Nuremberg – Everyone begun feeling similarly at the end
Primary – Both camps found themselves to be winners and part of their candidates.
RESOURCES FOR ABOVE
theoretical perspectives in group dynamics
Groupthink – Irving Janis
People among groups become so unified that they feel they can’t disagree with group decisions and fail to examine functions carefully. Loss of rationality due to strong pressures to conform.
Manchu – Not sure
Nuremberg – The defendants gave into the crimes due to strong pressures to conform. Even the best and brightest aren’t free from such failures
Primary – Everything the candidates said to their respective groups was met with applause
RESOURCES FOR ABOVE
Three basic themes. Dependency on the leader, pairing among members for emotional support, and fight-flight reactions to a threat to the group.
Manch – Not sure
Nuremberg – Persiding judge, other honors, the defendants
Primary – very direct to the themes
RESOURCES FOR ABOVE
Mastery goals – Improvement
Performance goals – Looking good
Manchu – Improve ability to assasinate people as needed
Nuremberg – Improve justice
Primary – Look good
Level of aspiration
Compromise between ideal goals and more realistic expectations.
Manchu – Mother ends up with her own son – uses him anyway
Nuremberg – Ideal – justice; realistic – needs allies
Primary – Want to please all, but seek to please the majority
Realistic conflict theory
Intergroup conflicts are rational in the sense that groups have incompatible goals and are in compeition over scarce resources.
Manchu – Wanting to do a trial assaination vs preserving the weapon
Nuremberg – The judges at the end. One says nay, Haworth(main judge?) says yay.
Primary – The general public. Such things as pro or against a leader being god-fearing.
RESOURCES FOR ABOVE
Group goals social interdependence and trust
Kurt lewin field theory
people behave baised on the interaction of the person and the environment.
Function of personal qualities and social environment.
Manchu – The soldiers are brainwashed
Nuremberg – defendants submit and stand with one another, prosecutor and defense fight
primary – Crowds go wild
RESOURCES FOR ABOVE
the nature of group dynamics